Abundances of hydrogen and helium are from Refs. The oxygen flux at kinetic energy of 10.6 GeV/nucleon is 3.29× 10−2 (m2 s sr GeV/nucleon)−1. • Applications: Galaxies & Clusters! • Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays: Extragalactic Sources! These cosmic rays are hitting Earth's atmosphere, creating a spray of secondary cosmic rays that shower toward the ground below.

Cosmic Rays Theory Cosmic rays are energetic particles coming from outer space. Cosmic rays are nearly isotropic at most energies due to diffusive propagation in the galactic magnetic field. [2–13]. • Galactic: Shock Acceleration in Supernovae!

Cosmic rays are nearly isotropic at most energies due to diffusive propagation in the galactic magnetic field. [3,4]. Radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV, similar to what you get from medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners. Secondary cosmic rays are what we measure. Milagro [16], IceCube [17], and the Tibet-III air shower array [18] have observed anisotropy at the level of about 10−3 for cosmic rays with energy of a few TeV, possibly due to nearby sources. Milagro [16], IceCube [17], and the Tibet-III air shower December 1, 2017 09:36. • The Confinement of Cosmic Rays ! The Earth and any other spatial body, as well as satellites and astronauts in orbit, are exposed to cosmic rays. 28.Cosmicrays 3 Table 28.1: Relative abundances F of cosmic-ray nuclei at 10.6 GeV/nucleon nor-malized to oxygen (≡ 1) [7]. • The Physical Origin of Cosmic Rays! • Cosmic Ray (Magneto)Hydrodynamics! Above: Schematic … Note that one can not use these values to extend the cosmic-ray • Open Problems

The cosmic rays nature is very diverse (the kinetic energy of the particles of cosmic rays is distributed over fourteen orders of magnitude), as well as Outline • An Overview of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy! 30.Cosmicrays 3 Figure 30.1: Fluxes of nuclei of the primary cosmic radiation in particles per energy-per-nucleus are plotted vs energy-per-nucleus using data from Refs.